The effect of molding and gating system design on hydrogen induced crack defects in steel castings

Main Article Content

Mustafa Murat Zor
Ferhat Tülüce
Serdar Kesim
Alper Yoloğlu


Hydrogen cracking occurs due to the build-up of gas pressure at inclusions, generally manganese sulfide inclusions. Cracking occurs in the thickest parts of a section, distance to diffuse out to surface is greater, and hydrogen is more likely to get trapped. Casting simulation technology is an most effective method to provide the predicted information on casting defects such as shrinkage, gas entrapment, and non-metallic inclusions. But it is not possible to detect hydrogen-induced defects in steel castings in today's flow and solidification simulation programs. In the study, various moulding and gating system designs have been designed for steel castings in industrial conditions and the effects of gating system design on hydrogen-induced crack defects have been investigated. The flow and solidification of the gating systems of the casting part were simulated by using Novacast flow and solidification program. The study clearly shows that gating system has revealed that it plays a significant role in preventing hydrogen-induced crack defects in steel castings.

Article Details

How to Cite
Zor, M. M., Tülüce, F. ., Kesim, S. ., & Yoloğlu, A. . (2023). The effect of molding and gating system design on hydrogen induced crack defects in steel castings. Advanced Engineering Science, 3, 164–177. Retrieved from


Xian, A., Li, P., Chen, W., Wang, Y., Chen, R., & Mei, D. (1994). Effect of removing hydrogen from heavy rail steel blooms by stack cooling in Panzhihua iron and steel company. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, Series A, 6, 415-419.

Fruehan, R. J. (1997). A review of hydrogen flaking and its prevention. Iron & steelmaker, 24(8), 61-69.

Bramfitt, B. L. (2005). Carbon and Alloy Steels. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, 1, 1-38.

Akhurst, K. N., & Baker, T. J. (1981). The threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-induced crack growth. Metallurgical Transactions A, 12, 1059-1070.

Archakov, Y. I., & Grebeshkova, I. D. (1986). Nature of hydrogen embrittlement of steel. Metal Science and Heat Treatment (Engl. Transl.); (United States), 27.

Bugaev, V. N., Gavriljuk, V. G., Petrov, Y. N., & Tarasenko, A. V. (1997). Mechanism of hydrogen-induced phase transformations in metals and alloys. International journal of hydrogen energy, 22(2-3), 213-218.

Barrera, O., Tarleton, E., Tang, H. W., & Cocks, A. C. F. (2016). Modelling the coupling between hydrogen diffusion and the mechanical behaviour of metals. Computational Materials Science, 122, 219-228.

Ravichandar, D., Balusamy, T., & Nagashanmugam, K. B. (2014). Reducing UT rejections in Cr-Mo and High Mn steels by controlling hydrogen and optimising superheat. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 591, 38-42.

Gaude-Fugarolas, D. (2010). Hydrogen reduction during steel casting by thermally induced up-hill diffusion. Proceedings of METAL2010, Roznov pod Radhostem, Czech Republic. Tanger Ltd.

Campbell, J. (2015). Complete casting handbook: metal casting processes, metallurgy, techniques and design. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Zor, M. M., Yoloğlu, A., Kesim, S., & Tülüce, F. (2022). Pressurized gating system design and optimization in steel castings. Engineering Applications, 1(1), 1-10.

Jolly, M. (2005). Prof. John Campbell’s ten rules for making reliable castings. Jom, 57, 19-28.

Campbell, J. (2012). Stop pouring, start casting. International Journal of Metalcasting, 6, 7-18.

Melendez, A. J., Carlson, K. D., & Beckermann, C. (2010). Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting. International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 23(5), 278-288.

Renukananda, K. H., & Ravi, B. (2016). Multi-gate systems in casting process: comparative study of liquid metal and water flow. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 31(8), 1091-1101.

Brown, J. (2000). Foseco ferrous foundryman's handbook. Butterworth-Heinemann. 11th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Zor, M. M., Kesim, S., Tülüce, F., & Yoloğlu, A. (2023). Reducing casting defects in ductile iron castings by optimized pouring system. Engineering Applications, 2(1), 26-31.

Modaresi, A., Safikhani, A., Noohi, A. M. S., Hamidnezhad, N., & Maki, S. M. (2017). Gating system design and simulation of gray iron casting to eliminate oxide layers caused by turbulence. International Journal of Metalcasting, 11(2), 328-339.

Hsu, F. Y., Jolly, M. R., & Campbell, J. (2009). A multiple-gate runner system for gravity casting. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(17), 5736-5750.

Jezierski, J. D. R. & Jenerka, K. (2017). Optimizing Gating System for Steel Castings. In 5th International Conference on Modern Manufacturing Technologies in Industrial Engineering, 14-17.

Zor, M. M., Tülüce, F., Kesim, S., & Yoloğlu, A. (2023). The effect of metal turbulence on hydrogen induced crack defects in steel castings. Advanced Engineering Days (AED), 7, 92-95.

Most read articles by the same author(s)