Performance analysis and kinematic test of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) over coastal waters of Türkiye

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Volkan Akgül
Kurtuluş Sedar Görmüş
Şenol Hakan Kutoğlu
Shuanggen Jin


Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is essential for current civilization because it is used in many areas such as transportation, construction, agriculture, meteorology, disaster monitoring, risk management, etc. Therefore, developed countries strive to establish their positioning service to use the benefits they provide. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a positioning service developed by China that recently achieved global coverage. Like other GNSS, BDS is subjected to various tests before commissioning. The system's control is the same as other positioning services, and it is tracked by ground control stations. In this context, position dilution of precision (PDOP), pseudorange multipath, and carrier phase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance analysis were carried out with 30 seconds interval BDS data of ZBEU (Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University) GNSS monitor station. BDS's multipath and SNR results were compared with other global positioning services. Single and multi-system precise point positioning (PPP) solutions were examined comparatively using the 2019 and 2023 data of the ZBEU station. In addition, BDS kinematic test results were examined with 1-second interval data of transects along the coast of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Satellite visibility, PDOP, and positioning performance were analyzed along the offshore survey route. In terms of SNR and multipath, the results showed that the performance of BDS signals was similar to other GNSS. Depending on the satellite visibility change, SPP results in the Mediterranean were better than the Black Sea. It has been observed that BDS PPP results were improved from 2019 to 2023, and achieved almost the same results as other GNSS.

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Akgül, V., Görmüş , K. S., Kutoğlu , Şenol H., & Jin, S. (2024). Performance analysis and kinematic test of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) over coastal waters of Türkiye. Advanced Engineering Science, 4, 1–14. Retrieved from


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