Methods and software for estimation of total electron content in ionosphere using GNSS observations

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Alexander Naumov
Petr Khmarskiy
Nikita Byshnev
Mikita Piatrouski


Methods and algorithms for determining the total electron content in the ionosphere by signals of global navigation satellite systems are investigated. An algorithm for calculating and visualizing vertical total electron content over the territory of the Republic of Belarus and neighboring states is developed, taking into account correction of phase ambiguity due to «cycle slip» and estimation of differential code biases. Software for processing radio-tomographic data for high-orbit ionosphere control is created. It includes tools for calculating the total electron content from the signals of the GPS satellites, tools for eliminating cycle slip, tools for calculating differential code biases, tools for calculating vertical total electron content over the territory of the Republic of Belarus and neighboring states. The software is written in the Python programming language version 3.10, using third-party cross-platform free libraries. The performance of the presented methods and algorithms is demonstrated by examples.

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Naumov, A., Khmarskiy, P., Byshnev, N., & Piatrouski, M. (2023). Methods and software for estimation of total electron content in ionosphere using GNSS observations. Engineering Applications, 2(3), 243–253. Retrieved from


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