Engineering geological appraisal of relative stability of Akure – Ondo Highway segment of F-209, Southwestern Nigeria: Post-Construction analysis
Main Article Content
The study examined the relative stability of Akure – Ondo which is a segment of F-209 Highway in Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria using geoengineering method. Investigation showed that the pavement is founded on sandy clay, sand and laterite. The average silica-sesquioxide ratio of the sample is 1.63 (lateritic soil type) with activity of 0.69 (inactive clay), while the clay mineralogy group is illite, and soaked California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is 12%. Thus, the thickness of the pavement should range from 325 mm (good segment) to 518 mm (for weak segment), which is far above the 192 – 316 mm existing thickness of the highway structure. In the upper 1.0 m, the subgrade structural number (SNG) coefficient for subgrade soil is higher than 0.5. The strength coefficient of the soil as subbase and base is less than 0.5. Therefore, based on these results, It can be concluded that the relative stability of the highway is due to its good engineering properties. The regression models of all parameters gave strong positive correlations for all the parameters correlated: soaked CBR and in-situ CBR, elasticity modulus and resilient modulus, in-situ CBR and resilient modulus, relative density and penetrative index, and relative density and in-situ CBR. However imminent failure is expected due to deficit in the design thickness and lack of drainage facility at the shoulders of the highway. The haulage activities along the highway have increased tremendous of recent; definitely it will affect the stability of the structure since its design-thickness will not sustain the present loadings on the highway in the long run.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Kadiyali, L. R., & Lal, N. B. (2005). Principles and Practices of Highway Engineering:(Including Expressways and Airport Engineering). Khanna Publishers.
Amosun, J. O., Olayanju, G. M., Sanuade, O. A., & Fagbemigun, T. (2018). Preliminary geophysical investigation for road construction using integrated methods. Materials and Geoenvironment, 65(4), 199-206.
Emmanuel, U.O., Ogbonnaya, I. & Uche, U.B. (2021). An investigation into the cause of road failure along Sagamu-Papalanto highway southwestern Nigeria. Geoenvironmental Disasters, 8,3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40677-020-00174-8
Owoseni, J. O., & Atigro, E. O. (2019). Engineering geological investigation of highway pavement failure in basement complex terrain of southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Science and Invention, 8, (6), 1, 14-22
Okigbo, N. (2012). Causes of highway failures in Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 4(11), 4695-4703.
Obaje, S. O. (2017). Appraisal of Pavement Failures on Ado-Ekiti–Ogbagi Road, South-Western Nigeria. International Journal of Geology and Earth Sciences, 3(2), 1-9.
Ilori, A. O. (2015). Geotechnical characterization of a highway route alignment with light weight penetrometer (LRS 10), in southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 6, 7, 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40703-015-0007-2
Akintayo, F. O., & Osasona, T. D. (2022). Design of Rigid Pavement for Oke- Omi Road, Ibadan, Nigeria. FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 382-388
Adetoro, A. E., & Abe, O. E. (2018). Assessment of Engineering Properties of Ado-Ekiti to Ikere-Ekiti Road Soil, Southwestern Nigeria. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 4(6), 191-195.
Aderemi, F. L., & Adeola, R. O. (2021). Geophysical Investigation of Causes of Road Failure along Abadina Community Road, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Environmental and Earth Sciences, 7(1), 1-5.
Ekwulo, E. O., & Eme, D. B. (2009). Fatigue and rutting strain analysis of flexible pavements designed using CBR methods. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(12), 412-421
Falowo, O. O., & Dayo, D. S. (2020). Geoengineering Assessment of Subgrade Highway Structural Material along Ijebu Owo – Ipele Pavement Southwestern Nigeria. International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET), 7(4), 1-10
Ampadu, S. I. K. (2007). A laboratory investigation into the effect of water content on the CBR of a subgrade soil. In Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics (pp. 137-144). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Ekeocha, N. E., & Akpokodje, E. G. (2012). Assessment of subgrade soils of parts of the lower Benue Trough Using California bearing ratio (CBR). The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 8, 572-579.
Bell, F. G. (2007). Engineering geology. Elsevier.
Bell, F. G. (2004). Engineering geology and construction. CRC Press.
Attewell, P. B., & Farmer, I. W. (2012). Principles of engineering geology. Springer Science & Business Media.
Brink, A. B. A., Parridge, J. C., & Williams, A. A. B. (1982). Soil Survey for Engineering, Claredon.
Carter, M., & Bentley, S. P. (1991). Correlations of soil properties. Pentech press publishers.
Clayton, C. R., Matthews, M. C., & Simons, N. E. (1982). Site investigation (No. Monograph). London: Granada.
De Beer, M. (1991). Use of the Dynarnic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) in the design of road structures. In Geotechnics in the African Environment (pp. 167-176). Routledge.
Paige-Green, P., & Van Zyl, G. D. (2019). A review of the dcp-dn pavement design method for low volume sealed roads: development and applications. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 9(4), 397-422.
Amer, R., Saad, A., Elhafeez, T. A., Kady, H. E., & Madi, M. (2014). Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation of Pavement Structures and Bridge Foundations. Austin Journal of Earth Science,1(1), 1-6
Osuolale, O. M., Oseni, A. A., & Sanni, I. A. (2012). Investigation of highway pavement failure along Ibadan-Iseyin Road, Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 1(8), 1-6
Ikechukwu, A. F., Emeka, O., & Hassan, M. M. (2019). Resilient modulus prediction of subgrade soil using dynamic cone penetrometer. In Contemporary Issues in Soil Mechanics: Proceedings of the 2nd GeoMEast International Congress and Exhibition on Sustainable Civil Infrastructures, Egypt 2018–The Official International Congress of the Soil-Structure Interaction Group in Egypt (SSIGE) (pp. 67-87). Springer International Publishing.
Ikechukwu, A. F., Hassan, M. M., & Moubarak, A. (2019). Evaluation of Subgrade Resilient Modulus from Unsaturated CBR Test. In Novel Issues on Unsaturated Soil Mechanics and Rock Engineering: Proceedings of the 2nd GeoMEast International Congress and Exhibition on Sustainable Civil Infrastructures, Egypt 2018–The Official International Congress of the Soil-Structure Interaction Group in Egypt (SSIGE) (pp. 60-81). Springer International Publishing.
Chen, D. H., Lin, D. F., Pen-Hwang Liau, P. H., & Bilyeu, J. (2005). A correlation between Dynamic Cone Penetrometer values and pavement layer moduli. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 38 (1), 1-25.
Gudishala, R. (2004). Development of resilient modulus prediction models for base and subgrade pavement layers from in situ devices test results. Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College.
Hassan, A. B. (1996). The effects of material parameters on Dynamic Cone Penetrometer results for fine-grained soils and granular materials. Oklahoma State University.
Herath, A., Mohammad, L. N., Gaspard, K., Gudishala, R., & Abu-Farsakh, M. Y. (2005). The use of dynamic cone penetrometer to predict resilient modulus of subgrade soils. In Advances in pavement engineering (pp. 1-16).
Federal Meteorological Survey (1982). Atlas of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2nd Edition, Federal Surveys, 160pp.
Iloeje, N. P. (1981). A new geography of Nigeria (New Revised Edition) published by Longman Nig. Ltd., Lagos, 201.
Smyth, A. J., & Montgomery, R. F. (1962). Soils and Land Use in Central Western Nigeria. Soils and Land Use in Central Western Nigeria, 265p
Wright, P. H. (1986). Highway Engineering, Sixth Edition, John Willey and Sons, New York
Yoder, E. J., & Witczak, M. W. (1975). Principles of Pavement Design. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc New York
Madedor, A. C. (1983). Pavement design guidelines and practice for different geological area in Nigeria: tropical soil of Nigeria in engineering practice, Balkema, Rotterdam, 291-297.
Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., & Sheriff, R. E. (1991). Applied Geophysics, Cambridge University Press, 792p
Williams, L. (1997). Fundamental of Geophysics. Cambridge University Press, 206-217
Kearey, P., Brooks, M., & Hill, I. (2002). An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration. Blackwell Science Limited, 262p
Nigeria Geological Survey (1984). Geological Map of Southwestern Nigeria, Geological Survey Department, Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel, Nigeria.
Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (2006). Geological and Mineral Map of Ondo State State, Nigeria
Zohdy, A. A. (1965). The auxiliary point method of electrical sounding interpretation, and its relationship to the Dar Zarrouk parameters. Geophysics, 30(4), 644-660.
Zhdanov, M. S., & Keller, G. V. (1994). The geoelectrical method in geophysics exploration. Elsevier, Amsterdam
Done, S., & Samuel, P. (2006). Department for International Development (DFID). Measuring road pavement strength and designing low volume sealed roads using the dynamic cone penetrometer. Unpublished Project Report, UPR/IE/76/06. Project Record, (R7783).
Hopkins, T. (1994). Minimum bearing strength of soil subgrades required to construct flexible pavements. In 4th International Conference, Bearing Capacity of Roads and AirfieldsFHWA, U of Minnesota, Army Corps of Engineers, NRC Canada, FAA (Vol. 1).
Christopher, B. R., Schwartz, C. W., Boudreaux, R., & Berg, R. R. (2006). Geotechnical aspects of pavements (No. FHWA-NHI-05-037). United States. Federal Highway Administration.
Kezdi, A., & Rethati, L. (1988). Handbook of Soil Mechanics, Volume 3: Soil Mechanics of Earthworks, Foundations and Highway Engineering Elsevier, Amsterdam
Transport and Road Research Laboratory (1990). A user’s manual for a program to analyze dynamic cone penetrometer data (Overseas Road Note 8) Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory
DIN 4094 Part 2 (1980). Dynamic and Static Penetrometer
Lockwood, D., De Franca, V. M. P., Ringwood, B., & DeBeer, M. (1992). Analysis and classification of DCP Survey Data. Technology and Information Management Programme, CSIR Transportek, Pretoria, South Africa.
Chen, J., Hossain, M., & Latorella, T. M. (1999). Use of falling weight deflectometer and dynamic cone penetrometer in pavement evaluation. Transportation Research Record, 1655(1), 145-151.
George, K. P., & Uddin, W. (2000). Subgrade characterization for highway pavement design (No. FHWA/MS-DOT-RD-00-131). Mississippi. Department of Transportation.
Das, B. M. (1983). Advanced soil mechanics. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company 442p
Holtz, W. G., & Kovacs, W. D. (1981). An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, Prentice-Hall Publishers, 733p
ASTM, (1990). Methods of Test for Soil for Civil Engineering Purpose. American Society for Testing and Materials.
Federal Ministry of Works and Housing (1997). Nigerian general specifications for roads and Bridges. Federal Highway Department, Lagos, 2, 145-284.