Groundwater analysis and management plan using integrated community perception and geo-spatial techniques in Wana, South Waziristan


  • Saddam Hussain
  • Shakeel Mahmood


Ground water, GIS, NRCS, Wana, Dams


Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources supporting human health and economic development. Globally, there has been an enormous stress on groundwater. In Pakistan, water shortage and decreasing groundwater level is one of the major issues. The groundwater assessment and management study has been conducted in Wana, South Waziristan using field survey and geospatial techniques. To achieve objectives, both primary and secondary data sources were used. The secondary data were acquired from concerned governmental departments. Primary data were collected through questionnaire survey, personal observations and Global Positioning System (GPS). Landsat ETM+ images were extracted to derive the land use land cover (LULC) of the area with four classes i.e., (Barren land, vegetation, built up and water bodies) through maximum likelihood (ML) technique. Soil map of the study area was digitized in Arc GIS 10.5. Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) technique was applied to interpolate rainfall. Different parameters include rainfall analysis, land cover, soil group and geology were used to generate NRCS model. NRCS hydrological and watershed modeling were applied to calculate the estimation of surface runoff and stream network order. Forestation, check dams and embankments have been proposed in the management plan. The results show groundwater level in Wana has declined 13 feet in the last five years. There are multiple factors that led to water depletion. The groundwater level drops sharply in the areas where there are high population and where there is large agricultural land. The need of construction of large and small dams to maintain the cultivation of water intensive crops in Wana South Waziristan, which will be helpful in augmenting the groundwater level, stabilizing the climate and will also prevent the land from flooding. The results and findings of this study can assist researchers for future research and decision makers.