Comparison of different algorithms with a single GNSS receiver


  • Ahmet Faruk Altıntaş
  • Salih Usta
  • Barış Karadeniz
  • Hüseyin Pehlivan




In Nowadays, many terrestrial or satellite-based positioning techniques have developed systems and methods to obtain the needed location information at low cost, real-time and precisely Nevertheless, each technique has undergone significant refinement and evolution, effectively converting the drawbacks of prior methods into notable advantages. In this study, the position accuracy of Network-RTK (Network-Real Time Kinematic) and PPP (Precise Point Positioning) techniques, which are trending in positioning techniques with GNSS, are examined and their advantages and disadvantages are revealed. Root mean square errors (RMSE) were calculated to test the point location accuracy.  The findings of the study indicate that the N-RTK technique exhibited superior performance over the PPP technique in all three components: North, East, and Up. However, it is worth noting that the PPP technique showed significant improvement in RMSE values after convergence, as the convergence of integer phase ambiguity took place. Additionally, by increasing the utilization of satellite observations and obtaining more accurate satellite orbit and clock correction information, the accuracy of PPP-based results approached that of the N-RTK technique. These results suggest that with enhanced data combinations and refined correction information, the PPP technique has the potential to achieve comparable position accuracy to that of the N-RTK technique. Nonetheless, it is important to acknowledge the initial superiority of the N-RTK technique in the specific aspects studied.


Landau, H., Vollath, U., & Chen, X. (2002). Virtual reference station systems. Journal of Global Positioning System, 1(2), 137-143.

Jansen, V. (2009). A comparision of the VRS and MAC principles for network RTK. International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Society Symposium. Surfers Paradise, Qld, Australia, 1-3 December.

Öcalan, T. (2012). GNSS/CORS ağları ile gerçek zamanlı konumsal bilgi. TÜBİTAK Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, 530, 66-71.

Zumberge, J. F., Heflin, M. B., Jefferson, D. C., Watkins, M. M., & Webb, F. H. (1997). Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth, 102 (B3), 5005–5017.

Kouba, J., & Heroux P. (2001). Precise point positioning using IGS orbit and clock products. GPS Solutions, 5 (2), 12-28.

Gao, Y., & Shen, X. (2002). A new method for carrier phase based precise point Positioning. Navigation, 49 (2), 109–116.

Wang, M., & Gao, Y. (2006). GPS Un-Differenced ambiguity resolution and validation. Proceedings of the 19th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, 292-300, Fort Worth, TX, USA, 26-29 September 2006.

Ge, M., Gendt, G., Rothacher, M., Shi, C., & Liu, J. (2008). Resolution of GPS carrier-phase ambiguities in precise point positioning (PPP) with daily observations. Journal of Geodesy, 82 (7), 389–399.

Laurichesse, D., Mercier, F., Berthias, J. P., Broca, P., & Cerri, L. (2009). Integer ambiguity resolution on undifferenced GPS phase measurements and its application to PPP and satellite precise orbit Determination. Navigation, 56, 135-149.

Collins, P., Bisnath, S., Lahaye, F., & Heroux, P. (2010). Undifferenced GPS ambiguity resolution using the decoupled clock model and ambiguity datum fixing. Navigation, 57, 123-135.