Spatial Assessment of Forest Cover Change in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Main Article Content
In this study spatial assessment of forest cover in Azad Kashmir was carried out. The study is based on secondary data. Satellite imageries of the past 20 years having temporal extent of five years were utilized for assessment of changes in vegetation covers. Supervised image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) techniques were used to achieve objective of the study. The results indicated that forest cover is declining leading to different environmental problems. Increase in population acted as booster for the factors such as deforestation, conversion of forest land into agriculture and built-up land. These anthropogenic activities put pressure on the forest of the study region. After 2005 disastrous earthquake, rapid development of built-up environment was the leading factor behind clearing of forest. It was found from the analysis that forest cover has significantly declined in the last two decades and affected ecosystem services. Location specific management strategies are highly recommended to reduce the rapid decline in forest cover. Strategy must also consider the population growth and traditional forest conservation strategies. Alongside, keeping in view the agricultural activities and infrastructural development in the dense forest cover areas are also recommended.
Ahmad A, Ahmad S, Nabi G, Zeb A, Rajpar M N, Ullah S, Khalid F., Rahman M, Liu Q, Zu K, Guo X & Wanghe K (2022). Carbon Emissions with Forest Cover Change and Wood Harvest in the Dry Temperate Region of Pakistan Between 1908 and 2015. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 361. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.876225
Ahmad K. S., Qureshi, R., Hameed, M. (2012). Conservation assessment and medicinal importance of some plants resources from Sharda, Neelum Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol, 14(6), 997-1000.
Akbar K F (2017). Potential impacts of climate change on plant diversity of hilly areas of Azad Kashmir and their mitigation: a review. Journal of Mountain Area Research, 2, 37-44.
Amjad D, Kausar S, Waqar R & Sarwar F (2019). Land cover change analysis and impacts of deforestation on the climate of District Mansehra, Pakistan. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 14(6), 103-113.
Gou Y, Balling J, De Sy V, Herold M, De Keersmaecker W, Slagter B. Mullissa A, Shang X & Reiche, J. (2022). Intra-annual relationship between precipitation and forest disturbance in the African rainforest. Environ. Res. Lett., 17(4), 044044. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac5ca0
Hamilton S E & Casey D (2016). Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21). Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25(6), 729-738. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12449
Maus V, Giljum S, Gutschlhofer J, da Silva D M, Probst M, Gass S L, Luckeneder S, Lieber M & McCallum I (2020). A global-scale data set of mining areas. Scientific data, 7(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00624-w
Mishra M, Santos C A G, do Nascimento T V M, Dash M K, da Silva R M, Kar D & Acharyya T (2022). Mining impacts on forest cover change in a tropical forest using remote sensing and spatial information from 2001–2019: A case study of Odisha (India). Journal of Environmental Management, 302, 114067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114067
Mohamed M A (2021a). An Assessment of Forest Cover Change and Its Driving Forces in the Syrian Coastal Region during a Period of Conflict, 2010 to 2020. Land, 10(2), 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020191
Mohamed M A (2021b). Spatiotemporal Impacts of Urban Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Surface Temperature: A Comparative Study of Damascus and Aleppo (Syria). Atmosphere, 12(8), 1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081037
Mohamed M A, Anders J & Schneider C (2020). Monitoring of changes in land use/land cover in Syria from 2010 to 2018 using multitemporal Landsat imagery and GIS. Land, 9(7), 226. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070226
Sebald J, Senf C, Heiser M, Scheidl C, Pflugmacher D & Seidl R (2019). The effects of forest cover and disturbance on torrential hazards: large-scale evidence from the Eastern Alps. Environmental Research Letters, 14(11), 114032. 1 https://doi.org/0.1088/1748-9326/ab4937
Ullah S, Farooq M, Shafique M, Siyab M A, Kareem F & Dees M (2016). Spatial assessment of forest cover and land-use changes in the Hindu-Kush mountain ranges of northern Pakistan. Journal of Mountain Science, 13(7), 1229-1237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-015-3456-3